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Computer Science - 10.06.2021
Insulators: Safe under Maximum Load
Insulators: Safe under Maximum Load
Insulator strings connect the live conductor to overhead-line towers. Researchers at TU Graz simulated for the first time when and under what conditions different loads act on these strings. Overhead lines will thus be made even safer. Another picture for download can be found at the end of the text Though small and inconspicuous, they literally play a supporting role in the operational safety of high-voltage lines: insulator strings.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.06.2021
Bacteria hijack latent phage of competitor
Bacteria hijack latent phage of competitor
Biochemists discover highly selective phage activation based on signal molecule Bacteriophages are still a relatively unknown component of the human microbiome. However, they can play a powerful role in the life cycles of bacteria. Biochemist Thomas Böttcher from the University of Vienna and PhD candidate Magdalena Jancheva were able to show for the first time how Pseudomonas bacteria use a self-produced signal molecule to selectively manipulate phages in a competing bacterial strain to defeat their enemy.

Life Sciences - Health - 08.06.2021
Meiosis: Mind the gap
Meiosis: Mind the gap
Meiosis is a specialized cell division process required to generate gametes, the reproductive cells of an organism. During meiosis, paternal and maternal chromosomes duplicate, pair, and exchange parts of their DNA in a process called meiotic recombination. In order to mediate this exchange of genetic material, cells introduce double strand breaks (DSBs) into their chromosomal DNA.

Life Sciences - 28.05.2021
DNA-based material with tunable properties
DNA-based material with tunable properties
While DNA is often idealised as the "molecule of life", it is also a highly sophisticated polymer that can be used for next-generation materials. Beyond the fact that it can store information, further fascinating aspects of DNA are its geometric and topological properties, such as knotting and super-coiling.

Physics - Materials Science - 27.05.2021
It takes some heat to form ice
It takes some heat to form ice
Researchers from TU Graz in Austria and the Universities of Cambridge and Surrey succeeded to track down the first step in ice formation at a surface, revealing that additional energy is needed for water before ice can start to form. Picture material for download at the end of the message Water freezes and turns to ice when brought in contact with a cold surface - a well-known fact.

Physics - Health - 18.05.2021
Crystalline supermirrors for trace gas detection in environmental science and medicine
Crystalline supermirrors for trace gas detection in environmental science and medicine
In an international cooperation with partners from industry and research, physicists from the University of Vienna, together with Thorlabs, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the University of Kansas, have now succeeded for the first time in demonstrating high-performance laser mirrors in the sensing-relevant mid-infrared wavelength range that absorb less than ten out of a million photons.

Physics - 14.05.2021
Is the past (and future) there when nobody looks?
Is the past (and future) there when nobody looks?
Quantum mechanics is famous for its indeterminism, but we can usually use probabilities to quantify our uncertainty about future observations. However, a team of researchers at the University of Vienna, the IQOQI Vienna (Austrian Academy of Sciences) and the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical physics have recently shown that in certain extreme quantum scenarios it is not possible to make such probabilistic predictions, provided that certain key assumptions of quantum mechanics hold true.

Electroengineering - 11.05.2021
Computer designs magnonic devices
Computer designs magnonic devices
Magnonic devices have the potential to revolutionize the electronics industry. Qi Wang, Andrii Chumak from University of Vienna and Philipp Pirro from TU Kaiserslautern have largely accelerated the design of more versatile magnonic devices via a feedback-based computational algorithm. Their "inverse-design" of magnonic devices has now been published.

Life Sciences - Computer Science - 10.05.2021
Reaching your life goals as a single-celled organism
Reaching your life goals as a single-celled organism
How do simple creatures manage to move to a specific place? Artificial intelligence and a physical model from TU Wien can now explain this. How is it possible to move in the desired direction without a brain or nervous system? Single-celled organisms apparently manage this feat without any problems: for example, they can swim towards food with the help of small flagellar tails.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 05.05.2021
Tracking down the tiniest of forces: how T cells detect invaders
Tracking down the tiniest of forces: how T cells detect invaders
T cells use their antigen receptors like sticky fingers - a team from TU Wien and MedUni Vienna was able to observe them doing so. T-cells play a central role in our immune system: by means of their so-called T-cell receptors (TCR) they make out dangerous invaders or cancer cells in the body and then trigger an immune reaction.

Physics - Chemistry - 29.04.2021
How acidic are atoms?
How acidic are atoms?
The acidity of molecules can be easily determined, but until now it was not possible to measure this important property for atoms on a surface. With a new microscopy technique from the Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien), this has now been achieved. The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance is crucial for its chemical behavior.

Physics - Electroengineering - 26.04.2021
New measurements call spin liquids into question
New measurements call spin liquids into question
Is it possible to transmit information through a material in the form of electron spins? New measurements show: not in the way that scientists had been working on for decades. It is an old dream of solid-state physics: "spin liquids" are a hypothetical state of matter with exotic magnetic properties.

Paleontology - 20.04.2021
New ancient shark discovered
New ancient shark discovered
In a new study, an international team led by Sebastian Stumpf from the University of Vienna describes a fossil skeleton of an ancient shark, which is assigned to a new, previously unknown genus and species. This rare fossil find comes from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation in England, a series of sedimentary rocks that was formed in a shallow, tropical-subtropical sea during the Upper Jurassic, about 150 million years ago.

Life Sciences - Environment - 14.04.2021
Of Apples and Oil Pumpkins: News from Microbiome Research
Of Apples and Oil Pumpkins: News from Microbiome Research
The extent to which the composition of the microbiome of apples and oil pumpkins depends on the geographical location and what insights can be derived from this for breeding, health and shelf life of the fruits is shown in two recent publications by researchers at TU Graz. Additional pictures for download at the end in the text We refer to the microbiome as the community of microorganisms that exist in or on all organisms, including bacteria and fungi.

History / Archeology - 13.04.2021
Childbirth versus pelvic floor stability: An evolutionary history of compromises
Childbirth versus pelvic floor stability: An evolutionary history of compromises
Human childbirth is comparatively difficult because our babies' heads are large relative to our birth canals. This tight "fetopelvic" fit increases the risk of obstructed labor, which in turn has potentially dire outcomes for both mother and child. It has long been thought that bipedalism prevents further widening of the human pelvis.

Innovation - 13.04.2021
3D-printed Material to Replace Ivory
3D-printed Material to Replace Ivory
With an elephant-friendly alternative to ivory, developed by TU Wien and Cubicure, old artefacts can be restored with high precision. For centuries, ivory was often used to make art objects. But to protect elephant populations, the ivory trade was banned internationally in 1989. To restore ivory parts of old art objects, one must therefore resort to substitute materials - such as bones, shells or plastic.

Physics - 12.04.2021
The indestructible light beam
The indestructible light beam
Researchers at Utrecht University and at TU Wien (Vienna) create special light waves that can penetrate even opaque materials as if the material was not even there. Why is sugar not transparent? Because light that penetrates a piece of sugar is scattered, altered and deflected in a highly complicated way.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.04.2021
Popeye with a whiff of rotten eggs
Popeye with a whiff of rotten eggs
A sulfosugar from green vegetables promotes the growth of important gut bacteria An international team of scientists led by microbiologists Alexander Loy from the University of Vienna and David Schleheck from the University of Konstanz has uncovered new metabolic capabilities of gut bacteria. For the first time, the researchers have analyzed how microbes in the gut process the plant-based, sulfur-containing sugar sulfoquinovose.

Physics - 31.03.2021
Heat conduction record with tantalum nitride
Heat conduction record with tantalum nitride
How can we remove heat from computer chips as fast as possible' At TU Wien, a metal compound has now been identified that is particularly well suited for this purpose. A thermos bottle has the task of preserving the temperature - but sometimes you want to achieve the opposite: Computer chips generate heat that must be dissipated as quickly as possible so that the chip is not destroyed.

Physics - Materials Science - 28.03.2021
Electromagnetic Fields of Nanostructures Visualized in 3D for the First Time
Electromagnetic Fields of Nanostructures Visualized in 3D for the First Time
Researchers at TU Graz and the University of Graz, together with experts from France, have succeeded in imaging surface phonons in 3D for the first time. This success could accelerate the development of new, efficient nanotechnologies. Whether for microscopy, data storage or sensor technology, many advanced technological applications that require specific functions rely on the structure of the electromagnetic field near the surfaces of materials.
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