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Health - Life Sciences - 20.06.2024
ME/CFS: New practical guideline published
Up to 80,000 people in Austria suffer from ME/CFS or myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. Although, the number of people affected by COVID-19 and post-infectious syndromes will continue to rise, there is a lack of public structures specialized in the care of the disease and the needs of affected patients.

Life Sciences - Physics - 19.06.2024
A Railroad of Cells
A Railroad of Cells
Looking under the microscope, a group of cells slowly moves forward in a line, like a train on the tracks. The cells navigate through complex environments. A new approach by researchers involving the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA) now shows how they do this and how they interact with each other.

Health - 19.06.2024
Gestational diabetes: Newly identified subgroups improve personalised therapy
Patients with gestational diabetes show different disease progressions and therefore require personalised treatment measures. An international research team led by MedUni Vienna has now identified three subgroups of the disease with different treatment needs. The results of the study, recently published in the prestigious journal "Diabetologia", could improve our understanding of gestational diabetes and significantly advance the development of personalised treatment concepts.

Music - 18.06.2024
The 'Queen of the Night' does not whistle
The ’Queen of the Night’ does not whistle
New findings about the sound production mechanism of ultra-high-pitched operatic singing Opera singers have to use the extreme limits of their voice range. Many pedagogical and scientific sources suggest that the highest pitches reached in classical singing can only be produced with a so-called "whistle" voice register, in analogy to ultrasonic vocalizations of mice and rats.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 18.06.2024
Enzymes Instead of Cyanide: Researchers Develop Biocatalytic Process for Nitrile Production
Enzymes Instead of Cyanide: Researchers Develop Biocatalytic Process for Nitrile Production
A research team from TU Graz and the Czech Academy of Sciences has used two enzymes to eliminate the need for highly toxic cyanide in the production of nitriles. If the household cleaner emits a lemon-like odour, this may be due to a nitrile called citronellyl nitrile. These versatile chemical nitrile groups are also used in the manufacture of active pharmaceutical ingredients, superglue and chemical-resistant gloves.

Physics - 14.06.2024
Quantum entanglement measures Earth rotation
Quantum entanglement measures Earth rotation
A team of researchers led by Philip Walther at the University of Vienna carried out a pioneering experiment where they measured the effect of the rotation of Earth on quantum entangled photons. The work, just published in Science Advances , represents a significant achievement that pushes the boundaries of rotation sensitivity in entanglement-based sensors, potentially setting the stage for further exploration at the intersection between quantum mechanics and general relativity.

Materials Science - Physics - 13.06.2024
Customised Thermal Radiation
Customised Thermal Radiation
Normally, thermal radiation is a product of randomness, described by the laws of statistical physics. TU Wien and the University of Manchester show that it can also be controlled. When a piece of metal is made to glow, its colour depends solely on its temperature. The material, the geometry, the structure of its surface - none of these details matters.

Physics - 12.06.2024
What waves know about their environment
What waves know about their environment
Waves carry information about their surroundings. An exact theory has now been developed at TU Wien - with astonishing results that can be used for technical purposes. No matter whether ultrasound is used to study the body, radar systems to study airspace or seismic waves to study the interior of our planet: You are always dealing with waves that are deflected, scattered or reflected by their surroundings.

Physics - Chemistry - 11.06.2024
Switching Nanomagnets Using Infrared Lasers
Switching Nanomagnets Using Infrared Lasers
Physicists at TU Graz have calculated how suitable molecules can be stimulated by infrared light pulses to form tiny magnetic fields. If this is also successful in experiments, the principle could be used in quantum computer circuits. When molecules are irradiated with infrared light, they begin to vibrate due to the energy supply.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.06.2024
New insights on polymicrobial infections in chronic lung diseases
Chronic lung diseases are often accelerated and exacerbated by polymicrobial infections. An international study team led by MedUni Vienna has identified two types of these so-called dysbioses in cystic fibrosis. They display distinct ecology and are also likely to respond differently to treatment. The study was published in the renowned journal Nature Communications.

Astronomy / Space - Research Management - 10.06.2024
Galactic Bloodlines: Many Nearby Star Clusters Originate from Only Three 'Families'
Galactic Bloodlines: Many Nearby Star Clusters Originate from Only Three ’Families’
Supernova explosions from the formation history of these families also left traces on Earth An international team of astronomers led by the University of Vienna has deciphered the formation history of young star clusters, some of which we can see with the naked eye at night. The team, led by Cameren Swiggum and Joćo Alves from the University of Vienna and Robert Benjamin from the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, reports that most nearby young star clusters belong to only three families, which originate from very massive star-forming regions.

Health - Life Sciences - 07.06.2024
Inhibition of epigenetic control enzymes in immune cells as a potential new starting point in cancer immunotherapy
Immunotherapy is one of the pillars in the fight against cancer and aims to enable the body's own immune system to fight a tumor. A recent study now shows that removing certain enzymes that regulate epigenetic processes from the so-called dentritic cells of the immune system influences their development and thus improves anti-tumor immunity.

Physics - Chemistry - 06.06.2024
TU Graz Revolutionises Simulation of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)
TU Graz Revolutionises Simulation of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs)
Due to the complex structures of microporous crystals known as MOFs, reliable simulations of their properties have been difficult until now. Machine learning provides the solution. Hydrogen storage, heat conduction, gas storage, CO2 and water sequestration - metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have extraordinary properties due to their unique structure in the form of microporous crystals, which have a very large surface area despite their small size.

Environment - Agronomy / Food Science - 05.06.2024
Uptake of tire wear additives by vegetables grown for human consumption
Uptake of tire wear additives by vegetables grown for human consumption
Irrigation with treated wastewater and sewage sludge brings tire additives into the leafy vegetables Car tires contain hundreds of chemical additives that can leach out of them. This is how they end up in crops and subsequently in the food chain. Researchers at the Center for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science at the University of Vienna and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have now detected these chemical residues in leafy vegetables for the first time.

Health - Life Sciences - 05.06.2024
Prostate cancer: Protein identified to reduce tumour growth
As prostate cancer progresses, it becomes increasingly aggressive and can metastasise. In this form, the tumour is difficult to treat, which is reflected in high mortality rates: Worldwide, the malignant disease of the prostate is the second most common cause of cancer death in men. An international study led by Lukas Kenner (MedUni Vienna) and Sabine Lagger (Vetmeduni Vienna) has now identified a protein that could slow tumour growth.

Health - Pharmacology - 04.06.2024
Heart: New heart valve prosthesis enables broader applicability
A catheter-based tricuspid valve replacement with a newly approved heart valve was performed for the first time in Austria at University Hospital Vienna and MedUni Vienna. The new heart valve prosthesis now also makes it possible to treat patients who could previously only be treated with medication for anatomical reasons or due to the cause of the heart valve leak.

Physics - Mathematics - 03.06.2024
Groundbreaking Progress in Quantum Physics: How Quantum Field Theories Decay and Fission
Groundbreaking Progress in Quantum Physics: How Quantum Field Theories Decay and Fission
A simple concept of decay and fission of "magnetic quivers" helps to clarify complex quantum physics and mathematical structures.

Health - Pharmacology - 03.06.2024
New findings on the prevention of rejection reactions in organ transplants
Immunosuppressive drugs protect transplanted organs from harmful immune reactions. Nevertheless, rejection reactions can still occur. A MedUni Vienna research team led by Thomas Wekerle has deciphered mechanisms that lead to rejection despite the use of the latest immunosuppressive drugs. These findings point to new therapeutic options for preventing such rejection reactions in the future.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 03.06.2024
The Embryo Assembles Itself
The Embryo Assembles Itself
New mathematical framework sheds light on how cells communicate to form embryo Biological processes depend on puzzle pieces coming together and interacting. Under specific conditions, these interactions can create something new without external input. This is called self-organization, as seen in a school of fish or a flock of birds.

Environment - Social Sciences - 28.05.2024
Fewer invasive species in natural areas of indigenous populations
Fewer invasive species in natural areas of indigenous populations
Sustainable land use as a key to combating alien species The introduction of plant and animal species into new regions by humans is increasing rapidly worldwide. Some of these non-native species have a massive impact as they upset the balance of ecosystems. It was previously unclear whether there are differences in the spread of such invasive species between areas cared for by indigenous populations and other regions.
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