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Chemistry - Mathematics - 28.07.2021
From chemical Graphs To Structures
From chemical Graphs To Structures
Three-dimensional (3D) configurations of atoms dictate all materials properties. Quantitative predictions of accurate equilibrium structures, 3D coordinates of all atoms, from a chemical graph, a representation of the structural formula, is a challenging and computationally expensive task which is at the beginning of practically every computational chemistry workflow.

Health - 27.07.2021
Attachment style secures your love during lockdowns
Attachment style secures your love during lockdowns
What constitutes good relationship quality in times of crisis Relationships are crucial for our health and well-being. But which factors help to sustain a satisfying relationship, and can we predict which relationships make it through a crisis? An international team led by Stephanie Eder of the University of Vienna set out to investigate these questions during a time when 'hard lockdowns' were introduced throughout Europe.

Life Sciences - Environment - 21.07.2021
Root exudation and biological nitrification potential in pearl millet can boost sustainable agriculture
Root exudation and biological nitrification potential in pearl millet can boost sustainable agriculture
Agriculture is the main source for the majority of the input of reactive N to terrestrial systems; large amounts of fertilizer N are lost from the root zone as nitrate through leaching and denitrification. Avoiding the combination of high external inputs with low resource use efficiency remains a major concern for the sustainability of N in agroecosystems.

Physics - 14.07.2021
Heisenberg Under the Microscope
Heisenberg Under the Microscope
The quantum movements of a small glass sphere could be controlled for the first time in Vienna by combining microscopy with control engineering, setting the course for future quantum technologies. A football is not a quantum particle. There are crucial differences between the things we know from everyday life and tiny quantum objects.

Life Sciences - Health - 13.07.2021
Symbionts sans frontieres: Bacterial partners travel the world
Symbionts sans frontieres: Bacterial partners travel the world
This pandemic year has seen us confined to our homes and restricted from travelling the world. Not so for some microscopic bacteria in the ocean: Throughout the globe, they partner up with clams from the family Lucinidae, which live unseen in the sand beneath the shimmering blue waters of coastal habitats.

Physics - Chemistry - 13.07.2021
Electrons in quantum liquid gain energy from laser pulses
Electrons in quantum liquid gain energy from laser pulses
The absorption of energy from laser light by free electrons in a liquid has been demonstrated for the first time. Until now, this process was observed only in the gas phase. The findings, led by Graz University of Technology, open new doors for ultra-fast electron microscopy. The investigation and development of materials crucially depends on the ability to observe smallest objects at fastest time scales.

Life Sciences - Environment - 12.07.2021
Human environmental genome recovered in the absence of skeletal remains
Human environmental genome recovered in the absence of skeletal remains
Ancient sediments from caves have already proven to preserve DNA for thousands of years. The amount of recovered sequences from environmental sediments, however, is generally low, which difficults the analyses to be performed with these sequences. A study led by Ron Pinhasi and Pere Gelabert of the University of Vienna and published in Current Biology successfully retrieved three mammalian environmental genomes from a single soil sample of 25,000 years bp obtained from the cave of Satsurblia in the Caucasus (Georgia).

Life Sciences - Health - 06.07.2021
Bacterial survival kit to endure in soil
Bacterial survival kit to endure in soil
Soil bacteria have amazing strategies to attain energy in order to withstand stressful times Soils are one of the most diverse habitats on the planet. There are more than thousand microbial species per gram that significantly influence numerous environmental processes. However, the majority of these organisms are believed to be in a state of 'dormancy' due to environmental stress, such as nutrient-poor conditions.

Life Sciences - 29.06.2021
The evolution of axial patterning
The evolution of axial patterning
Similarity in axis formation of sea anemones and sea urchins provides insight into axis formation in prehistoric animals Body axes are molecular coordinate systems along which regulatory genes are activated. These genes then activate the development of anatomical structures in correct locations in the embryo.

Life Sciences - 23.06.2021
Asian elephants do more than just trumpet- they buzz their lips to squeak
Asian elephants do more than just trumpet- they buzz their lips to squeak
The animals' sound production does not only come from the trunk Communication is crucial for elephants that live in complex multi-tiered social systems. Apart from their iconic trumpets uttered through the trunk, Asian elephants also produce species-specific squeaks by buzzing their lips. This demonstrates once again the elephant's flexibility in sound production.

Physics - 18.06.2021
Atomic-scale tailoring of graphene approaches macroscopic world
Atomic-scale tailoring of graphene approaches macroscopic world
Properties of materials are often defined by imperfections in their atomic structure, especially when the material itself is just one atom thick, such as graphene. Researchers at the University of Vienna have now developed a method for controlled creation of such imperfections into graphene at length scales approaching the macroscopic world.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.06.2021
New insights into aortic dissection
New insights into aortic dissection
Aortic dissection is a life-threatening tear in the aortic wall. At present, little is known about the causes. Researchers at TU Graz have now developed algorithms and models designed to support early-stage diagnosis and treatment. Images for download at the end of the message. In most cases, aortic dissection is the result of a tear in the inner layer of the aortic wall, the intima.

Physics - 16.06.2021
Quantum-nonlocality at all speeds
Quantum-nonlocality at all speeds
The phenomenon of quantum nonlocality defies our everyday intuition. It shows the strong correlations between several quantum particles some of which change their state instantaneously when the others are measured, regardless of the distance between them. While this phenomenon has been confirmed for slow moving particles, it has been debated whether nonlocality is preserved when particles move very fast at velocities close to the speed of light, and even more so when those velocities are quantum mechanically indefinite.

Life Sciences - Environment - 14.06.2021
Making a meal of DNA in the seafloor
Making a meal of DNA in the seafloor
Specialised bacteria in the oceans seafloor consume and recycle nucleic acids from dead biomass While best known as the code for genetic information, DNA is also a nutrient for specialised microbes. An international team of researchers led by Kenneth Wasmund and Alexander Loy from the University of Vienna has discovered several bacteria in sediment samples from the Atlantic Ocean that use DNA as a food source.

Computer Science - 10.06.2021
Insulators: Safe under Maximum Load
Insulators: Safe under Maximum Load
Insulator strings connect the live conductor to overhead-line towers. Researchers at TU Graz simulated for the first time when and under what conditions different loads act on these strings. Overhead lines will thus be made even safer. Another picture for download can be found at the end of the text Though small and inconspicuous, they literally play a supporting role in the operational safety of high-voltage lines: insulator strings.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.06.2021
Bacteria hijack latent phage of competitor
Bacteria hijack latent phage of competitor
Biochemists discover highly selective phage activation based on signal molecule Bacteriophages are still a relatively unknown component of the human microbiome. However, they can play a powerful role in the life cycles of bacteria. Biochemist Thomas Böttcher from the University of Vienna and PhD candidate Magdalena Jancheva were able to show for the first time how Pseudomonas bacteria use a self-produced signal molecule to selectively manipulate phages in a competing bacterial strain to defeat their enemy.

Life Sciences - Health - 08.06.2021
Meiosis: Mind the gap
Meiosis: Mind the gap
Meiosis is a specialized cell division process required to generate gametes, the reproductive cells of an organism. During meiosis, paternal and maternal chromosomes duplicate, pair, and exchange parts of their DNA in a process called meiotic recombination. In order to mediate this exchange of genetic material, cells introduce double strand breaks (DSBs) into their chromosomal DNA.

Life Sciences - 28.05.2021
DNA-based material with tunable properties
DNA-based material with tunable properties
While DNA is often idealised as the "molecule of life", it is also a highly sophisticated polymer that can be used for next-generation materials. Beyond the fact that it can store information, further fascinating aspects of DNA are its geometric and topological properties, such as knotting and super-coiling.

Physics - Materials Science - 27.05.2021
It takes some heat to form ice
It takes some heat to form ice
Researchers from TU Graz in Austria and the Universities of Cambridge and Surrey succeeded to track down the first step in ice formation at a surface, revealing that additional energy is needed for water before ice can start to form. Picture material for download at the end of the message Water freezes and turns to ice when brought in contact with a cold surface - a well-known fact.

Physics - Health - 18.05.2021
Crystalline supermirrors for trace gas detection in environmental science and medicine
Crystalline supermirrors for trace gas detection in environmental science and medicine
In an international cooperation with partners from industry and research, physicists from the University of Vienna, together with Thorlabs, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the University of Kansas, have now succeeded for the first time in demonstrating high-performance laser mirrors in the sensing-relevant mid-infrared wavelength range that absorb less than ten out of a million photons.
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