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Life Sciences - Environment - 26.11.2021
The Study of the Microbiome Enables New Strategies for Healthy and Climate-Resilient Crops
The Study of the Microbiome Enables New Strategies for Healthy and Climate-Resilient Crops
Study led by TU Graz shows that apple trees inherit their microbiome to the same extent as their genes. The results lay the foundation for new breeding strategies for healthy and climate-robust fruit and vegetables. Agriculture is facing enormous challenges worldwide due to global changes caused by human activities.

Life Sciences - 05.11.2021
How to decode the meaning of melodies in animal vocalizations
How to decode the meaning of melodies in animal vocalizations
Evolution led to similarities in the melodies of animal vocalizations and human languages When listening closely, the melodies of human languages and animal vocalizations are very similar. However, it is not yet fully resolved if similar patterns in languages and animal vocalizations also have similar meanings.

Environment - Life Sciences - 03.11.2021
Profound ecological change in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
Profound ecological change in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
Distinct ecological niches: Tropical species profoundly alter ecosystem functioning in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea - with unknown consequences. Assemblages of tropical non-indigenous species in the Eastern Mediterranean have biological traits that markedly differ from those of native biological communities.

Life Sciences - 29.10.2021
Why do humans possess a twisted birth canal?
Why do humans possess a twisted birth canal?
Extraordinary shape makes births more difficult, but guarantees stability The relatively narrow human birth canal presumably evolved as a "compromise" between its abilities for parturition, support of the inner organs, and upright walking. But not only the size of the birth canal, also its complex, "twisted" shape is an evolutionary puzzle.

Life Sciences - Health - 21.10.2021
Fighting viruses with interchangeable defense genes
Fighting viruses with interchangeable defense genes
Bacteria rapidly modify mobile parts of their genome to develop resistance to viruses Bacterial viruses, so-called phages, destroy bacteria. Bacteria are constantly exposed to viral attacks. A research team led by Martin Polz, a microbiologist at the University of Vienna, has now studied how bacteria defend themselves against viral predators.

Life Sciences - Health - 03.09.2021
Gut bacteria influence brain development
Gut bacteria influence brain development
Researchers discover biomarkers that indicate early brain injury in extreme premature infants Extremely premature infants are at a high risk for brain damage. Researchers at the University of Vienna and the Medical University of Vienna have now found possible targets for the early treatment of such damage outside the brain: Bacteria in the gut of premature infants may play a key role.

Life Sciences - Environment - 21.07.2021
Root exudation and biological nitrification potential in pearl millet can boost sustainable agriculture
Root exudation and biological nitrification potential in pearl millet can boost sustainable agriculture
Agriculture is the main source for the majority of the input of reactive N to terrestrial systems; large amounts of fertilizer N are lost from the root zone as nitrate through leaching and denitrification. Avoiding the combination of high external inputs with low resource use efficiency remains a major concern for the sustainability of N in agroecosystems.

Life Sciences - Health - 13.07.2021
Symbionts sans frontieres: Bacterial partners travel the world
Symbionts sans frontieres: Bacterial partners travel the world
This pandemic year has seen us confined to our homes and restricted from travelling the world. Not so for some microscopic bacteria in the ocean: Throughout the globe, they partner up with clams from the family Lucinidae, which live unseen in the sand beneath the shimmering blue waters of coastal habitats.

Life Sciences - Environment - 12.07.2021
Human environmental genome recovered in the absence of skeletal remains
Human environmental genome recovered in the absence of skeletal remains
Ancient sediments from caves have already proven to preserve DNA for thousands of years. The amount of recovered sequences from environmental sediments, however, is generally low, which difficults the analyses to be performed with these sequences. A study led by Ron Pinhasi and Pere Gelabert of the University of Vienna and published in Current Biology successfully retrieved three mammalian environmental genomes from a single soil sample of 25,000 years bp obtained from the cave of Satsurblia in the Caucasus (Georgia).

Life Sciences - Health - 06.07.2021
Bacterial survival kit to endure in soil
Bacterial survival kit to endure in soil
Soil bacteria have amazing strategies to attain energy in order to withstand stressful times Soils are one of the most diverse habitats on the planet. There are more than thousand microbial species per gram that significantly influence numerous environmental processes. However, the majority of these organisms are believed to be in a state of 'dormancy' due to environmental stress, such as nutrient-poor conditions.

Life Sciences - 29.06.2021
The evolution of axial patterning
The evolution of axial patterning
Similarity in axis formation of sea anemones and sea urchins provides insight into axis formation in prehistoric animals Body axes are molecular coordinate systems along which regulatory genes are activated. These genes then activate the development of anatomical structures in correct locations in the embryo.

Life Sciences - 23.06.2021
Asian elephants do more than just trumpet- they buzz their lips to squeak
Asian elephants do more than just trumpet- they buzz their lips to squeak
The animals' sound production does not only come from the trunk Communication is crucial for elephants that live in complex multi-tiered social systems. Apart from their iconic trumpets uttered through the trunk, Asian elephants also produce species-specific squeaks by buzzing their lips. This demonstrates once again the elephant's flexibility in sound production.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.06.2021
New insights into aortic dissection
New insights into aortic dissection
Aortic dissection is a life-threatening tear in the aortic wall. At present, little is known about the causes. Researchers at TU Graz have now developed algorithms and models designed to support early-stage diagnosis and treatment. Images for download at the end of the message. In most cases, aortic dissection is the result of a tear in the inner layer of the aortic wall, the intima.

Life Sciences - Environment - 14.06.2021
Making a meal of DNA in the seafloor
Making a meal of DNA in the seafloor
Specialised bacteria in the oceans seafloor consume and recycle nucleic acids from dead biomass While best known as the code for genetic information, DNA is also a nutrient for specialised microbes. An international team of researchers led by Kenneth Wasmund and Alexander Loy from the University of Vienna has discovered several bacteria in sediment samples from the Atlantic Ocean that use DNA as a food source.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.06.2021
Bacteria hijack latent phage of competitor
Bacteria hijack latent phage of competitor
Biochemists discover highly selective phage activation based on signal molecule Bacteriophages are still a relatively unknown component of the human microbiome. However, they can play a powerful role in the life cycles of bacteria. Biochemist Thomas B÷ttcher from the University of Vienna and PhD candidate Magdalena Jancheva were able to show for the first time how Pseudomonas bacteria use a self-produced signal molecule to selectively manipulate phages in a competing bacterial strain to defeat their enemy.

Life Sciences - Health - 08.06.2021
Meiosis: Mind the gap
Meiosis: Mind the gap
Meiosis is a specialized cell division process required to generate gametes, the reproductive cells of an organism. During meiosis, paternal and maternal chromosomes duplicate, pair, and exchange parts of their DNA in a process called meiotic recombination. In order to mediate this exchange of genetic material, cells introduce double strand breaks (DSBs) into their chromosomal DNA.

Life Sciences - 28.05.2021
DNA-based material with tunable properties
DNA-based material with tunable properties
While DNA is often idealised as the "molecule of life", it is also a highly sophisticated polymer that can be used for next-generation materials. Beyond the fact that it can store information, further fascinating aspects of DNA are its geometric and topological properties, such as knotting and super-coiling.

Life Sciences - Computer Science - 10.05.2021
Reaching your life goals as a single-celled organism
Reaching your life goals as a single-celled organism
How do simple creatures manage to move to a specific place? Artificial intelligence and a physical model from TU Wien can now explain this. How is it possible to move in the desired direction without a brain or nervous system? Single-celled organisms apparently manage this feat without any problems: for example, they can swim towards food with the help of small flagellar tails.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 05.05.2021
Tracking down the tiniest of forces: how T cells detect invaders
Tracking down the tiniest of forces: how T cells detect invaders
T cells use their antigen receptors like sticky fingers - a team from TU Wien and MedUni Vienna was able to observe them doing so. T-cells play a central role in our immune system: by means of their so-called T-cell receptors (TCR) they make out dangerous invaders or cancer cells in the body and then trigger an immune reaction.

Life Sciences - Environment - 14.04.2021
Of Apples and Oil Pumpkins: News from Microbiome Research
Of Apples and Oil Pumpkins: News from Microbiome Research
The extent to which the composition of the microbiome of apples and oil pumpkins depends on the geographical location and what insights can be derived from this for breeding, health and shelf life of the fruits is shown in two recent publications by researchers at TU Graz. Additional pictures for download at the end in the text We refer to the microbiome as the community of microorganisms that exist in or on all organisms, including bacteria and fungi.
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