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Life Sciences - Health - 12.11.2018
A Chip with Blood Vessels
A Chip with Blood Vessels
Biochips have been developed at TU Wien (Vienna), on which tissue can be produced and examined. This allows supplying the tissue with different substances in a very controlled way. Cultivating human cells in the Petri dish is not a big challenge today. Producing artificial tissue, however, permeated by fine blood vessels, is a much more difficult task.

Life Sciences - 08.11.2018
Re-inventing the hook
Re-inventing the hook
Orangutans spontaneously bend straight wires into hooks to fish for food The bending of a hook into wire to fish for the handle of a basket is surprisingly challenging for young children under eight years of age. Now cognitive biologists and comparative psychologists from the University of Vienna, the University of St Andrews and the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna around Isabelle Laumer and Alice Auersperg studied hook tool making for the first time in a non-human primate species - the orangutan.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 06.11.2018
RNA Microchips
RNA Microchips
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is, along with DNA and protein, one of the three primary biological macromolecules and was probably the first to arise in early life forms. In the "RNA world" hypothesis, RNA is able to support life on its own because it can both store information and catalyze biochemical reactions.

Health - Life Sciences - 24.09.2018
A new remedy for celiac disease
A new remedy for celiac disease
In an industrial collaboration project, TU Wien has developed a medication that can alleviate or even completely eliminate the symptoms of celiac disease. It should be available as early as 2021. Celiac disease is a fairly common disease, affecting one to two percent of the European population. It is expressed as a hypersensitivity to gluten, a protein found in cereals such as wheat, barley or rye.

Life Sciences - Environment - 28.08.2018
Remote islands harbour higher numbers of non-native species
Remote islands harbour higher numbers of non-native species
The effects of island remoteness from the mainland on the number of species found on islands differs strongly for non-native compared to native species. Numbers of native species on islands decrease with greater remoteness, while numbers of non-native species increase. This surprising finding has been uncovered by an international research team led by Dietmar Moser, Bernd Lenzner and Franz Essl from the Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research of the University of Vienna.

Health - Life Sciences - 13.08.2018
Artificial placenta created in the laboratory
Artificial placenta created in the laboratory
In order to better understand important biological membranes, it is necessary to explore new methods. Researchers at TU Wien (Vienna) have succeeded in creating an artificial placental barrier on a chip, using a high-resolution 3D printing process. The placenta has an essential and highly complex task: it must ensure the exchange of important substances between the mother and her unborn child, whilst simultaneously blocking other substances from passing through.

Life Sciences - Environment - 19.06.2018
Is the sky the limit?
Is the sky the limit?
What stops a species adapting to an ever-wider range of conditions, continuously expanding its geographic range? The biomathematician Jitka Polechová, an Elise Richter Fellow at the University of Vienna, has published a paper in PLoS Biology which explains the formation of species' range margins. The theory shows that just two compound parameters, important for both ecology and evolution of species, are fundamental to the stability of their range: the environmental heterogeneity and the size of the local population.

Social Sciences - Life Sciences - 15.06.2018
To share or not to share?
To share or not to share?
When are primary school children willing to share valuable resources with others and when are they not? A team of researchers from the University of Vienna lead by cognitive biologist Lisa Horn investigated this question in a controlled behavioural experiment. The motivation to share seems to be influenced by group dynamical and physiological factors, whereas friendship between the children seems to be largely irrelevant.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 22.05.2018
Embryonic gene regulation through mechanical forces
Embryonic gene regulation through mechanical forces
During embryonic development genetic cascades control gene activity and cell differentiation. In a new publication of the journal PNAS, the team of Ulrich Technau of the Department of Molecular Evolution and Development at the University of Vienna reported that besides the genetic program, also mechanical cues can contribute to the regulation of gene expression during development.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.04.2018
T cell antigen receptors act alone: longstanding immunological mystery solved
T cell antigen receptors act alone: longstanding immunological mystery solved
What happens when T cells detect suspicious activity in the body? Researchers from the TU Wien and the Medical University of Vienna have revealed that immune receptors of T cells operate in unsuspected ways. Every T cell receptor of the living T cell (left) is marked with a special marker molecule. The bottom part of the cell can be imaged with a highly sensitive microscope.

Environment - Life Sciences - 26.02.2018
King penguins may be on the move very soon
King penguins may be on the move very soon
More than 70 percent of the global King penguin population, currently forming colonies in Crozet, Kerguelen and Marion sub-Antarctic islands, may be nothing more than a memory in a matter of decades, as global warming will soon force the birds to move south, or disappear. This is the conclusion of a study published in the current issue of the prestigious and performed by an international team of researchers from France, Monaco, Italy, Norway, South Africa, Austria and US.

Life Sciences - Materials Science - 22.02.2018
Combating sulphuric acid corrosion at wastewater plants: Graz scientists develop new solution
Combating sulphuric acid corrosion at wastewater plants: Graz scientists develop new solution
Writing in Water Research, researchers from TU Graz and the University of Graz discuss new materials that prevent damage from microbial induced concrete corrosion. available at the end of the text Wastewater systems are integral to infrastructure in every community. In an ideal world, they operate smoothly and are long-lasting.

Physics - Life Sciences - 11.12.2017
Clothes make the woman: less empathy towards women showing more skin
Clothes make the woman: less empathy towards women showing more skin
Sexualized representations, especially the emphasis of secondary sexual characteristics, can change the way we perceive an individual. An international team of researchers led by Giorgia Silani from the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Vienna has shown that empathic feelings and brain responses are reduced when we observe the emotions of sexualized women.

Health - Life Sciences - 16.11.2017
Veni Vidi Vici
Multidrug resistance of microbes poses a serious global threat to human health. Such resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae significantly reduce therapeutic options for the treatment of Klebsiella-induced, potentially fatal pneumonia or sepsis.

Life Sciences - 08.11.2017
The key to a nut
The key to a nut
The Goffin's cockatoo is not a specialised tool user in the wild but has shown the capacity to invent and use different types of tools in captivity. Now cognitive biologists from the University of Vienna and the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna tested these parrots in a tool use task, requiring the birds to move objects in relation to a surface.

Health - Life Sciences - 23.10.2017
Boost for lipid research: Graz researchers facilitate lipid data analysis
Boost for lipid research: Graz researchers facilitate lipid data analysis
Illnesses such as cancer and multiple sclerosis may also be associated with lipids. Disorders are difficult to assess due to the diversity of lipids. Graz scientists present a new tool for the analysis of lipids. No lipids, no life. In all organisms, lipids form cell walls, store energy and release it when necessary, and play an important role in cell signalling.

Astronomy / Space Science - Life Sciences - 17.10.2017
Microbes leave
Microbes leave "fingerprints" on Martian rocks
Scientists around Tetyana Milojevic from the Faculty of Chemistry at the University of Vienna are in search of unique biosignatures, which are left on synthetic extraterrestrial minerals by microbial activity. The biochemist and astrobiologist investigates these signatures at her own miniaturized "Mars farm" where she can observe interactions between the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula and Mars-like rocks.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.10.2017
Germ-free hatching eggs: An alternative to formaldehyde application
Germ-free hatching eggs: An alternative to formaldehyde application
Hatching eggs in large-scale hatcheries are currently treated with formaldehyde to eliminate germs. Researchers from TU Graz, acib and Roombiotic have now developed a natural alternative. There was a Europe-wide outcry in the summer of 2017 as it emerged that hatching eggs were being treated with the insecticide fipronil, which is harmful to health.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.10.2017
Risk of Caesarean section is heritable
Risk of Caesarean section is heritable
Women born by Caesarean section due to a fetopelvic disproportion (FDP) are more than twice as likely to develop FDP when giving birth than women born naturally. This is the conclusion of a study by a team of evolutionary biologists at the University of Vienna headed by Philipp Mitteroecker. Using a mathematical model, the team was able to explain the paradoxical phenomenon that natural selection did not lead to the reduction in the rates of obstructed labour.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 12.10.2017
Enzymes at work: breaking down stubborn cellulose
Enzymes at work: breaking down stubborn cellulose
TU Graz researchers observe enzymes breaking down cellulose to aid the production of biofuels. The results are now published. Biofuels obtained from biomass are becoming increasingly important. Apart from biomethane, however, they cannot be produced efficiently, cheaply and sustainably since the current technological complexity and costs are still too high.

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