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Environment - 23.07.2024
Non-Exhaust Emissions from Trains Are Not Negligible
Non-Exhaust Emissions from Trains Are Not Negligible
One of the first major studies on abrasion emissions from rail vehicles shows that a lot of particulate matter contaminated with heavy metals is produced especially along railway lines. In addition to exhaust emissions, abrasion emissions from tyres and brakes have become increasingly important when assessing the environmental impact of traffic.

Life Sciences - Environment - 09.07.2024
Postbuses collect insects for biodiversity throughout Austria
Postbuses collect insects for biodiversity throughout Austria
From the bus window to the DNA laboratory: Postbuses make the diversity of flying insects in Austria visible. The University of Innsbruck is launching an innovative project to record insect biodiversity. Wipe and know which insects fly in Austria: In the new biodiversity project of the Institute of Zoology at the University of Innsbruck, public transport in Tyrol, Carinthia, Lower Austria and Upper Austria is helping to study the diversity of microorganisms.

Environment - Agronomy / Food Science - 05.06.2024
Uptake of tire wear additives by vegetables grown for human consumption
Uptake of tire wear additives by vegetables grown for human consumption
Irrigation with treated wastewater and sewage sludge brings tire additives into the leafy vegetables Car tires contain hundreds of chemical additives that can leach out of them. This is how they end up in crops and subsequently in the food chain. Researchers at the Center for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science at the University of Vienna and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have now detected these chemical residues in leafy vegetables for the first time.

Environment - Social Sciences - 28.05.2024
Fewer invasive species in natural areas of indigenous populations
Fewer invasive species in natural areas of indigenous populations
Sustainable land use as a key to combating alien species The introduction of plant and animal species into new regions by humans is increasing rapidly worldwide. Some of these non-native species have a massive impact as they upset the balance of ecosystems. It was previously unclear whether there are differences in the spread of such invasive species between areas cared for by indigenous populations and other regions.

Life Sciences - Environment - 30.04.2024
New insights into the evolution of a water-saving trait in the pineapple family
New insights into the evolution of a water-saving trait in the pineapple family
Adaptation of the photosynthetic mechanism in air plants (Tillandsia) occurs through gene duplication Researchers at the University of Vienna, along with collaborators from France, Germany, Switzerland and the USA, have achieved a major breakthrough in understanding how genetic drivers influence the evolution of a specific photosynthesis mechanism in Tillandsia (air plants).

Environment - 29.04.2024
How can forests be reforested in a climate-friendly way?
How can forests be reforested in a climate-friendly way?
Only a few tree species are flexible enough to survive a century of rapid climate change Europe's forests have already been severely affected by climate change. Thousands of hectares of trees have already died due to drought and bark beetles. Scientists from the University of Vienna and the Technical University of Munich have now investigated which trees can be used for reforestation.

Environment - Life Sciences - 26.04.2024
Biodiversity: climate becomes the main player
Biodiversity: climate becomes the main player
A recent study in the journal Science takes the most comprehensive look yet at the past and future of global biodiversity: intensive land use reduced biodiversity by up to around 10 percent over the course of the 20th century. By 2050, the climate crisis could become the main factor, alongside land use, for further losses in biodiversity.

Materials Science - Environment - 24.04.2024
Nanofibers rid water of hazardous dyes
Nanofibers rid water of hazardous dyes
Dyes, such as those used in the textile industry, are a major environmental problem. At TU Wien, efficient filters have now been developed - based on cellulose waste. Using waste to purify water may sound counterintuitive. But at TU Wien, this is exactly what has now been achieved: a special nanostructure has been developed to filter a widespread class of harmful dyes from water.

Life Sciences - Environment - 17.04.2024
How soil microbes survive in harsh desert environments
How soil microbes survive in harsh desert environments
As desertification spreads worldwide, scientists discover how desert microbes endure harsh drought periods Prolonged droughts followed by sudden bursts of rainfall - how do desert soil bacteria manage to survive such harsh conditions? This long-debated question has now been answered by an ERC project led by microbiologist Dagmar Woebken from the Centre for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science (CeMESS) at the University of Vienna.

Environment - Physics - 10.04.2024
Novel UV Broadband Spectrometer Revolutionises Air Pollutant Analysis
Novel UV Broadband Spectrometer Revolutionises Air Pollutant Analysis
The laser-based technology developed at TU Graz enables the continual real-time analysis of air pollutants and their interaction with other gases and sunlight. Sunlight has a major influence on chemical processes. Its high-energy UV radiation in particular is strongly absorbed by all materials and triggers photochemical reactions of the substances present in the air.

Environment - Health - 04.04.2024
How Plants Heal Wounds
How Plants Heal Wounds
April 4, 2024 Pressure changes and mechanical forces trigger wound healing in plants Plants are very robust and survive harsh environments, owing in part to their remarkably efficient wound-healing capacity. For over a century, scientists aimed to understand it in more detail. A new collaborative study at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA) now shows that the process is quite straightforward, revolving around pressure and forces.

Paleontology - Environment - 21.03.2024
Rays were more diverse 150 million years ago than previously thought
Rays were more diverse 150 million years ago than previously thought
New fossil ray species discovered in Bavarica, Germany: Aellopobatis bavarica from the Late Jurassic In a new study recently published in the journal Papers in Palaeontology , an international team of scientists led by palaeobiologist Julia Türtscher from the University of Vienna has explored the puzzling world of rays that lived 150 million years ago and discovered a previously hidden diversity - including a new ray species.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 19.03.2024
Frequency of heat days systematically underestimated in many studies
Frequency of heat days systematically underestimated in many studies
Many studies on the climate crisis focus on researching temperature extremes on a global scale. Scientists at the University of Vienna have now uncovered an error in an established calculation method, leading to a systematic underestimation in the frequency of heat days. The error is based in the previously unnoticed impact of the seasonal cycle on the extreme threshold due to the incorrect application of so called "moving time windows".

Environment - 18.03.2024
New paths to energy security: demand-oriented solutions
New paths to energy security: demand-oriented solutions
Energy systems that are essential to our daily lives are increasingly threatened by wars, pandemics, climate change and other unexpected events. An international team of researchers has found that demand-side approaches have far greater potential to reduce our vulnerability to energy crises than supply-side measures.

Environment - Life Sciences - 23.02.2024
Global warming increases the diversity of active soil bacteria
Global warming increases the diversity of active soil bacteria
New findings enable more accurate prediction of the carbon cycle Warmer soils harbour a greater diversity of active microbes, according to a new study from researchers at the Centre for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science (CeMESS) at the University of Vienna. The study, published in Science Advances , represents a significant shift in our understanding of how microbial activity in the soil influences the global carbon cycle and possible feedback mechanisms on the climate.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 23.02.2024
Cloud Clustering Causes More Extreme Rain
Cloud Clustering Causes More Extreme Rain
New climate model shows more extreme rainfall in the tropics with increased temperatures Understanding cloud patterns in our changing climate is essential to making accurate predictions about their impact on society and nature. Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA) and the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology published a new study in the journal Science Advances that uses a high-resolution global climate model to understand how the clustering of clouds and storms impacts rainfall extremes in the tropics.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 22.02.2024
First high-resolution record of fossil corals shows climate change
First high-resolution record of fossil corals shows climate change
Hawaii: Environmental data from shallow-water corals provide a glimpse 500,000 years into the past During the IODP Expedition 389 "Hawaiian Drowned Reefs" off the coast of Hawaii, scientists recovered a total of 426 meters of cores from the seafloor in water depths ranging from 130 to 1240 meters.

Life Sciences - Environment - 21.02.2024
Baleen whales evolved a unique larynx to communicate
Baleen whales evolved a unique larynx to communicate
The new results also make it clear that human noise in the oceans severely restricts the animals The iconic baleen whales, such as the blue, gray and humpback whale, depend on sound for communication in the vast marine environment where they live. However, ever since whale song were first discovered more than 50 years ago, it remained unknown how baleen whales produce their complex vocalizations - until now.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 09.01.2024
Shape matters: How microplastic travels that far
Shape matters: How microplastic travels that far
New study: Microplastic fibers are settling substantially slower than spherical particles in the atmosphere and might even reach stratosphere How far microplastics travel in the atmosphere depends crucially on particle shape, according to a recent study by scientists at the University of Vienna and the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organisation in Göttingen: While spherical particles settle quickly, microplastic fibers might travel as far as the stratosphere.

Environment - 28.12.2023
Prin­ting inks made from plants
Prin­ting inks made from plants
On the path to a circular economy, Judith Deriu is developing natural color pigments from plants and uses them to make sustainable printing inks for industry in the laboratory at the Research Institute of Textile Chemistry and Textile Physics in Dornbirn. Natural dyes have been used by humans for centuries.
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