Life Sciences

Results 101 - 120 of 325.

Life Sciences - Health - 22.08.2022
Caterpillar-like bacteria crawl in our mouths
Caterpillar-like bacteria crawl in our mouths
Evolution of longitudinal division and multicellularity in oral bacteria. To survive in the oral cavity, bacteria have evolved to divide along their longitudinal axis without separating from each other. This is what a research team led by cell biologist Silvia Bulgheresi of the University of Vienna and microbial geneticist Frédéric Veyrier of the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) recently discovered.

Health - Life Sciences - 22.08.2022
First treatment for liver damage in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic disorder that often leads to serious damage to the lungs and liver. Although there are already therapeutic measures available for alleviating pulmonary emphysema caused by the missing enzyme, the precise background to the associated liver damage was hitherto unclear and there was no known treatment option.

Life Sciences - Environment - 19.08.2022
Fish deaths in the Oder: algae toxin detected in Oder water
Fish deaths in the Oder: algae toxin detected in Oder water
Scientists of the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) and the University of Vienna believe that natural causes for the mass development of algae are unlikely. Recent investigations substantiate the suspicion that mass development of a toxic brackish water alga has taken place in the Oder River.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.08.2022
New prognostic marker discovered for multiple sclerosis severity
It is essential to assess the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to choose appropriate therapeutic measures, but this cannot be reliably done using existing methods. A MedUni Vienna study now shows for the first time that the retina can be used as a prognostic marker. Analyses revealed that retinal layer thinning as a result of an MS relapse predicts the severity of future relapses and, hence, the likelihood of disability.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.08.2022
Breast cancer: new drug shrinks brain metastases
Breast cancer: new drug shrinks brain metastases
An Austrian study led by MedUni Vienna showed that active brain metastases in breast cancer patients are partially or even completely regressed by a novel class of drug. This is a chemical conjugate of an antibody and a chemotherapy drug that, according to current findings, opens up a completely new avenue in oncological research and targeted therapy.

Life Sciences - Health - 02.08.2022
Receptor FIBCD1 newly identified in neuro-developmental disorders
A multidisciplinary study led by Vanja Nagy (LBI-RUD/CeMM/Medical University of Vienna) and Josef Penninger (UBC/IMBA) characterized a novel gene, known as FIBCD1, to be likely causative of a new and rare neurodevelopmental disorder. Using data from two young patients with neurological symptoms, the researchers from both groups found evidence of a novel function for the FIBCD1 gene in the brain, and a potentially pivotal role in diseases such as autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer-s.

Health - Life Sciences - 26.07.2022
Potential for improving premature baby care
One in two premature babies receives transfusions of red blood cells (RBC) due to anaemia. There are no generally accepted clinical guidelines for the degree of anaemia necessitating blood transfusions. MedUni Vienna researchers have now conducted a critical review of the currently available literature.

Health - Life Sciences - 19.07.2022
Study confirms accuracy of national virus variant monitoring of wastewater
Since 2020, Austria has played an internationally pioneering role in monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic by sequencing virus particles from wastewater samples. A recent study by CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Medical University of Vienna, the University of Innsbruck, and many other collaboration partners now demonstrates unprecedented detail and accuracy when it comes to analyses of how wastewater reflects virus variant dynamics.

Life Sciences - 15.07.2022
Newly discovered: neuronal cell type for controlling the flow of information in the brain
A scientific team from MedUni Vienna's Center for Brain Research has now identified specific cells that regulate the transmission of information between brain areas. This discovery forms the basis for the development of new treatment options for neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, which are characterised by impaired coordination of information flow in the brain.

Health - Life Sciences - 14.07.2022
Established drug for symptoms of angina pectoris also protects vascular system
A drug used in the clinical treatment of angina symptoms also has an anti-inflammatory effect and reduces atherosclerotic plaques in blood vessels - thereby reducing the risk of heart attack or stroke. The study, led by MedUni Vienna and including access to data from Harvard Medical School, has now been published in the highly regarded journal "PNAS".

Life Sciences - Health - 13.07.2022
TBE: activation mechanism of flaviviruses identified
A collaboration between researchers at the Center for Virology of the Medical University of Vienna and the Pasteur Institute in Paris has provided unexpected insights into the atomic interactions of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in infected cells. In particular, the researchers identified a new molecular switch that is used to control the processes of virus assembly, virus maturation and entry into new cells.

Life Sciences - 21.06.2022
1.700-year-old Korean genomes show genetic heterogeneity in Three Kingdoms period Gaya
Facial reconstruction possible through DNA analyses An international team led by The University of Vienna and the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology in collaboration with the National Museum of Korea has successfully sequenced and studied the whole genome of eight 1.700-year-old individuals dated to the Three Kingdoms period of Korea (approx. BC-668 AD).

Environment - Life Sciences - 17.06.2022
Chemical pollution threatens biodiversity
Chemical pollution threatens biodiversity
Scientists say more environmental pollutants should be considered in species protection Environmental chemical pollution threatens biodiversity. However, the complexity of this pollution remains insufficiently recognised by decision-makers - this is what international researchers led by Gabriel Sigmund from the University of Vienna and Ksenia Groh from the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) argue in the most recent issue of "Science".

Life Sciences - 15.06.2022
Parasitic worms reveal new insights into the evolution of sex and sex chromosomes
Parasitic worms reveal new insights into the evolution of sex and sex chromosomes
Two unrelated worm phyla give clues on how sex chromosomes might have evolved Studying two highly divergent phyla of worms that contain numerous parasites that cause human and livestock diseases, the research group of Qi Zhou from the University of Vienna and Zhejiang University, sheds light on how sexual reproduction and subsequent great diversity of sex chromosomes might have evolved.

History / Archeology - Life Sciences - 02.06.2022
Archaeological Science as Game-Changer: What ancient genes tell us about who we are
Archaeological Science as Game-Changer: What ancient genes tell us about who we are
Research at the University of Vienna could solve mystery of human evolution Using the latest scientific methods, Tom Higham and Katerina Douka from the University of Vienna want to solve a great mystery of human evolution: Why are we the only humans left? Higham and Douka were the first ones to find a first-generation offspring of two different types of human.

Life Sciences - 01.06.2022
Rendezvous at night - how moonlight fine-tunes animal reproduction
Rendezvous at night - how moonlight fine-tunes animal reproduction
The study provides an explanation for the phenomenon that daily clocks from flies to humans can exhibit plastic run-times Animals possess circadian clocks, or 24 h oscillators, to regulate daily behavior. These typically take their cues from the periodic change of sunlight and darkness.

Life Sciences - Computer Science - 24.05.2022
TU Graz and Intel Demonstrate Significant Energy Savings Using Neuromorphic Hardware
TU Graz and Intel Demonstrate Significant Energy Savings Using Neuromorphic Hardware
By Christoph Pelzl Research published in Nature Machine Intelligence illustrates neuromorphic technology is up to sixteen times more energy-efficient for large deep learning networks than other AI systems. For the first time TU Graz's Institute of Theoretical Computer Science and Intel Labs demonstrated experimentally that a large neural network can process sequences such as sentences while consuming four to sixteen times less energy while running on neuromorphic hardware than non-neuromorphic hardware.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 24.05.2022
Molecular light switches provide insights into the central nervous system
Fluorescent dyes, such as those used in discotheques with black lights or from forensic crime-scene searches for blood traces, play an important role in pharmaceutical research in particular. They can be used to visualize biological structures in fluids, cells or tissues. A team led by neuropharmacologist Margot Ernst from the Medical University of Vienna and theoretical chemist Leticia González from the University of Vienna have conducted a study to investigate the mechanism of a fluorescent dye for neuroscience.

Physics - Life Sciences - 18.05.2022
Magnetic resonance makes the invisible visible
Magnetic resonance makes the invisible visible
Hyperpolarised water boosts signal intensities of proteins, DNA, and membranes A small group of researchers including Dennis Kurzbach from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna just published in "Nature Protocols" an advanced NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) method to monitor fast and complicated biomolecular events such as protein folding.

Health - Life Sciences - 18.05.2022
Viral infections during pregnancy affect maternal care behaviour
Viral infections during pregnancy affect the mother's brain and her postpartum care behaviour. These are the findings of a research study in a mouse model conducted at MedUni Vienna. The results were published in the leading journal "Molecular Psychiatry". There is ample data from studies in mouse models demonstrating that viral infections during pregnancy can affect the developing brain of the young in utero (in the womb) with lifelong consequences for brain function and behaviour.