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Life Sciences - 21.06.2022
1.700-year-old Korean genomes show genetic heterogeneity in Three Kingdoms period Gaya
Facial reconstruction possible through DNA analyses An international team led by The University of Vienna and the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology in collaboration with the National Museum of Korea has successfully sequenced and studied the whole genome of eight 1.700-year-old individuals dated to the Three Kingdoms period of Korea (approx. BC-668 AD).

Environment - Life Sciences - 17.06.2022
Chemical pollution threatens biodiversity
Chemical pollution threatens biodiversity
Scientists say more environmental pollutants should be considered in species protection Environmental chemical pollution threatens biodiversity. However, the complexity of this pollution remains insufficiently recognised by decision-makers - this is what international researchers led by Gabriel Sigmund from the University of Vienna and Ksenia Groh from the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) argue in the most recent issue of "Science".

Life Sciences - 15.06.2022
Parasitic worms reveal new insights into the evolution of sex and sex chromosomes
Parasitic worms reveal new insights into the evolution of sex and sex chromosomes
Two unrelated worm phyla give clues on how sex chromosomes might have evolved Studying two highly divergent phyla of worms that contain numerous parasites that cause human and livestock diseases, the research group of Qi Zhou from the University of Vienna and Zhejiang University, sheds light on how sexual reproduction and subsequent great diversity of sex chromosomes might have evolved.

History / Archeology - Life Sciences - 02.06.2022
Archaeological Science as Game-Changer: What ancient genes tell us about who we are
Archaeological Science as Game-Changer: What ancient genes tell us about who we are
Research at the University of Vienna could solve mystery of human evolution Using the latest scientific methods, Tom Higham and Katerina Douka from the University of Vienna want to solve a great mystery of human evolution: Why are we the only humans left? Higham and Douka were the first ones to find a first-generation offspring of two different types of human.

Life Sciences - 01.06.2022
Rendezvous at night - how moonlight fine-tunes animal reproduction
Rendezvous at night - how moonlight fine-tunes animal reproduction
The study provides an explanation for the phenomenon that daily clocks from flies to humans can exhibit plastic run-times Animals possess circadian clocks, or 24 h oscillators, to regulate daily behavior. These typically take their cues from the periodic change of sunlight and darkness.

Life Sciences - Computer Science - 24.05.2022
TU Graz and Intel Demonstrate Significant Energy Savings Using Neuromorphic Hardware
TU Graz and Intel Demonstrate Significant Energy Savings Using Neuromorphic Hardware
Research published in Nature Machine Intelligence illustrates neuromorphic technology is up to sixteen times more energy-efficient for large deep learning networks than other AI systems. For the first time TU Graz's Institute of Theoretical Computer Science and Intel Labs demonstrated experimentally that a large neural network can process sequences such as sentences while consuming four to sixteen times less energy while running on neuromorphic hardware than non-neuromorphic hardware.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 24.05.2022
Molecular light switches provide insights into the central nervous system
Fluorescent dyes, such as those used in discotheques with black lights or from forensic crime-scene searches for blood traces, play an important role in pharmaceutical research in particular. They can be used to visualize biological structures in fluids, cells or tissues. A team led by neuropharmacologist Margot Ernst from the Medical University of Vienna and theoretical chemist Leticia González from the University of Vienna have conducted a study to investigate the mechanism of a fluorescent dye for neuroscience.

Physics - Life Sciences - 18.05.2022
Magnetic resonance makes the invisible visible
Magnetic resonance makes the invisible visible
Hyperpolarised water boosts signal intensities of proteins, DNA, and membranes A small group of researchers including Dennis Kurzbach from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna just published in "Nature Protocols" an advanced NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) method to monitor fast and complicated biomolecular events such as protein folding.

Health - Life Sciences - 18.05.2022
Viral infections during pregnancy affect maternal care behaviour
Viral infections during pregnancy affect the mother's brain and her postpartum care behaviour. These are the findings of a research study in a mouse model conducted at MedUni Vienna. The results were published in the leading journal "Molecular Psychiatry". There is ample data from studies in mouse models demonstrating that viral infections during pregnancy can affect the developing brain of the young in utero (in the womb) with lifelong consequences for brain function and behaviour.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.05.2022
Different subtypes defined in small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a malignant disease associated with a particularly high mortality rate. According to a new multicenter study led by MedUni Vienna and conducted in collaboration with researchers from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Sweden and the United States, SCLC can be divided into several subgroups in terms of clinical behaviour.

Life Sciences - 12.05.2022
How shark teeth can decipher evolutionary processes
How shark teeth can decipher evolutionary processes
Tooth shapes of the tiger shark: Already the embryo changes - and swallows - its teeth From embryo to turtle cracker: a team led by palaeobiologist Julia Türtscher from the University of Vienna studied the multiple changes in tooth shape in the tiger shark. The study, recently published in the Journal of Anatomy, is also central in drawing conclusions about extinct species from the myriad of preserved shark teeth in the field of palaeontology.

Environment - Life Sciences - 10.05.2022
Bolder marmoset monkeys learn faster than shy ones
Bolder marmoset monkeys learn faster than shy ones
Cognitive capabilities in marmoset monkeys are influenced by both their personality as well as family group membership Individual traits seem to drive our learning success: for instance, conscientious individuals often show higher academic performance. A group of cognitive and behavioural biologists from University of Vienna conducted personality assessments and a battery of learning tests with common marmosets and found that such a link, intertwined with family group membership, exists in these monkeys, too.

Life Sciences - 04.05.2022
How octopuses and squid have broken away from the previously known pattern of evolution
How octopuses and squid have broken away from the previously known pattern of evolution
The chromosomes of cephalopods differ greatly from those of any other group of animals Cephalopods such as octopuses and squids are fascinating animals to both scientists and the general public. Their camouflage ability, complex and highly interactive behaviors, are so unique among the animal kingdom, that they defy our knowledge and understanding we learnt from other "complex" animals, such as humans.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.04.2022
Largest study of its kind links specific genes to schizophrenia
In the largest study so far conducted into schizophrenia, which included more than 320,000 participants, scientists from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), a group of several hundred researchers from 45 countries, identified a large number of genes that may play a significant role in the disorder.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.04.2022
Relieving symptoms in paraplegia
Up to 80% of people with a spinal cord injury suffer from spasticity. Until now, they had to choose between drugs with severe side effects or risky surgery. Mathematician and neuroscientist Ursula Hofstötter from the Medical University of Vienna developed a procedure that alleviates spasticity and also improves mobility - without any drugs or surgery.

Health - Life Sciences - 07.04.2022
Nerve Stimulation with the Help of Implantable Mini Solar Cells
Nerve Stimulation with the Help of Implantable Mini Solar Cells
An international research team has successfully developed and tested a concept in which nerves are stimulated with light pulses. The method provides considerable advantages for medicine and opens up a wide range of possible applications. Further images for download available at the end of the text The technology enables completely new types of implants that can be used to stimulate nerve cells and was developed in a joint effort by researchers from Graz University of Technology (TU Graz), the Medical University of Graz (Med Uni Graz), the University of Zagreb and the Czech CEITEC.

Life Sciences - Social Sciences - 23.02.2022
Ancient DNA reveals surprises about how early Africans lived, traveled and interacted
Ancient DNA reveals surprises about how early Africans lived, traveled and interacted
New research provides evidence of demographic shifts in sub-Saharan Africa A new analysis of human remains that were buried in African archaeological sites has produced the earliest DNA from the continent, telling a fascinating tale of how early humans lived, traveled and even found their significant others.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.02.2022
Investigating the waste in our cells: So that we can soon forget about Alzheimer's
Investigating the waste in our cells: So that we can soon forget about Alzheimer’s
Autophagy: What to do with the waste in our cells? A 'waste collection' tidies up our cells. If something does not go according to plan, serious diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's may develop. Molecular biologist Sascha Martens from the University of Vienna together with international partners - researchers of the University of Pennsylvania, Monash University, the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics in Frankfurt and the UC Berkeley - investigate the associated process: autophagy.

Life Sciences - 03.02.2022
Animal genomes: Chromosomes almost unchanged for over 600 million years
Animal genomes: Chromosomes almost unchanged for over 600 million years
Diversity of species arises through chromosomal mixing By comparing chromosomes of different animal groups scientists at the University of Vienna led by Oleg Simakov and at the University of California made an astonishing discovery: Every animal species has almost the same chromosomal units that appear over and over again - and this has been the case since the first animals emerged about 600 million years ago.

Life Sciences - Paleontology - 10.01.2022
Within a dinosaur's head: ankylosaur was sluggish and deaf
Within a dinosaur’s head: ankylosaur was sluggish and deaf
German and Austrian scientists took a closer look at the braincase of a dinosaur from Austria. The group examined the fossil with a micro-CT and found surprising new details: it was sluggish and deaf. The respective study got recently published in the scientific journal scientific reports. Ankylosaurs could grow up to eight meters in body length and represent a group of herbivorous dinosaurs, also called 'living fortresses': Their body was cluttered with bony plates and spikes.
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