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Results 41 - 60 of 69.


Health - Life Sciences - 23.10.2017
Boost for lipid research: Graz researchers facilitate lipid data analysis
Boost for lipid research: Graz researchers facilitate lipid data analysis
Illnesses such as cancer and multiple sclerosis may also be associated with lipids. Disorders are difficult to assess due to the diversity of lipids. Graz scientists present a new tool for the analysis of lipids. No lipids, no life. In all organisms, lipids form cell walls, store energy and release it when necessary, and play an important role in cell signalling.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.10.2017
Risk of Caesarean section is heritable
Risk of Caesarean section is heritable
Women born by Caesarean section due to a fetopelvic disproportion (FDP) are more than twice as likely to develop FDP when giving birth than women born naturally. This is the conclusion of a study by a team of evolutionary biologists at the University of Vienna headed by Philipp Mitteroecker. Using a mathematical model, the team was able to explain the paradoxical phenomenon that natural selection did not lead to the reduction in the rates of obstructed labour.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.10.2017
Germ-free hatching eggs: An alternative to formaldehyde application
Germ-free hatching eggs: An alternative to formaldehyde application
Hatching eggs in large-scale hatcheries are currently treated with formaldehyde to eliminate germs. Researchers from TU Graz, acib and Roombiotic have now developed a natural alternative. There was a Europe-wide outcry in the summer of 2017 as it emerged that hatching eggs were being treated with the insecticide fipronil, which is harmful to health.

Electroengineering - Health - 04.09.2017
Electrical current provides a look inside the lungs
Electrical current provides a look inside the lungs
A new imaging technique, Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), will soon be used to monitor important bodily functions. A collaborative project between TU Wien, the Medical University of Vienna and the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, has enabled significant progress to be made with this technology.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.08.2017
Bacteria stab amoebae with micro-daggers
Bacteria stab amoebae with micro-daggers
Researchers from ETH Zurich and the University of Vienna have discovered a type of bacteria that uses tiny daggers to prevent itself from being eaten by amoebae. The scientists also resolved the three-dimensional structure of the mechanism that allows the micro-daggers to be shot quickly. Bacteria have to watch out for amoeba.

Health - 22.03.2017
Protective switch to treat obesity
Protective switch to treat obesity
Scientists at the University of Graz and TU Graz have developed an active ingredient that reduces obesity and can prevent type II diabetes as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), around 1.9 billion people are overweight worldwide. 75 per cent suffer from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 400 million have type II diabetes.

Health - Life Sciences - 21.03.2017
How do metals interact with DNA?
How do metals interact with DNA?
Since a couple of decades, metal-containing drugs have been successfully used to fight against certain types of cancer. The lack of knowledge about the underlying molecular mechanisms slows down the search for new and more efficient chemotherapeutic agents. An international team of scientists, led by Leticia González from the University of Vienna and Jacinto Sá from the Uppsala University, have developed a protocol that is able to detect how metal-based drugs interact with DNA.

Health - Chemistry - 21.12.2016
One more piece in the puzzle of liver cancer identified
One more piece in the puzzle of liver cancer identified
Manuela Baccarini and her team at the Max F. Perutz Laboratories (MFPL) of the University of Vienna and Medical University of Vienna are one step closer to unravelling the mechanisms behind liver cancer. The researchers discovered that RAF1, a protein known as an oncogene in other systems, unexpectedly acts as a tumour suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Life Sciences - Health - 29.11.2016
A molecular switch between Life, Sex and Death
A molecular switch between Life, Sex and Death
"Till death do us part" - for marine bristle worms, these words are invariably true: Shortly after mating, the parent worms die, leaving thousands of newly fertilized eggs to develop in the water. This extreme all-or-nothing mode of reproduction demonstrates a general principle: Animals need to decide if they invest their available energy stores either in growth or in reproduction.

Life Sciences - Health - 14.11.2016
Which genes are crucial for the energy metabolism of Archaea?
Which genes are crucial for the energy metabolism of Archaea?
Microorganisms like bacteria and archaea play an indispensable ecological role in the global geochemical cycles. A research team led by ERC prizewinner Christa Schleper from the Department of Ecogenomics and Systems Biology at the University of Vienna succeeded in isolating the first ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from soil: "Nitrososphaera viennensis" - the "spherical ammonia oxidizer from Vienna".

Life Sciences - Health - 20.10.2016
Taking out the cellular
Taking out the cellular "trash" - at the right place and the right time
New insight about how cells dispose of their waste is now given by the group of Claudine Kraft at the Max F. Perutz Laboratories (MFPL) of the University of Vienna and the Medical University of Vienna. They show the necessity of a regulation in space and time of a key protein involved in cellular waste disposal.

Life Sciences - Health - 07.04.2016
Ensuring the integrity of our genetic material during reproduction
Ensuring the integrity of our genetic material during reproduction
The genetic information we receive from our parents in the form of chromosomes are mosaics assembled from the two copies of chromosomes each parent has. This reshuffling of chromosome pieces happens via a cut and paste mechanism. How such cuts - or breaks - in our genetic material are repaired is the research interest of Verena Jantsch and her group at the Max F. Perutz Laboratories of the University of Vienna and the Medical University of Vienna.

Philosophy - Health - 29.03.2016
Autistic and non-autistic people make similar moral judgements
Autistic and non-autistic people make similar moral judgements
Despite prevalent myths in public about autism about their lack of empathic concern for others and propensity for condoning harmful behavior, so far the relation between their empathic capacity and moral evaluations remains sparsely studied. New research shows that the seemingly callous attitudes in autism are not a feature of autism per se but are due to an understudied aspect of their personality called alexithymia, which is characterized by emotional processing difficulties.

Health - Physics - 23.03.2016
A laser look at ultra-thin layers
A laser look at ultra-thin layers
From the coating of electronic or pharmaceutical products to thin plastic films - a new technique developed by TU Wien enables coating processes to be quality controlled in real time. When covering large areas with very thin layers of exactly the right thickness in the micrometre or nanometre range, it is easy to make mistakes.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.03.2016
"Daedalus dilemma" of the immune system
Our immune system constantly fights off bacteria and viruses and while doing so needs to find a critical balance between overand under-reaction, similar to Daedalus and Icarus in Greek mythology who must neither fly too high nor too low to escape their captivity. How this balancing act is regulated at the molecular levels was so far poorly understood.

Life Sciences - Health - 26.11.2015
Enigmatic Comammox Microbes
Enigmatic Comammox Microbes
Nitrification plays a key role in Earth's natural nitrogen cycle and in agriculture. This process comprises two sequential steps, and for more than 100 years experts have assumed these steps to be carried out by different microorganisms. Now an international team of scientists led by Holger Daims and Michael Wagner, microbiologists at the University of Vienna, has discovered microbes that perform complete nitrification on their own: A result contrasting textbook knowledge and a milestone of microbiology.

Life Sciences - Health - 14.10.2015
Larger brains do not lead to high IQs
Larger brains do not lead to high IQs
Is brain size related to cognitive ability of humans? This question has captured the attention of scientists for more than a century. An international team of researchers from the Universities of Vienna (Austria), Göttingen (Germany), and Tilburg (Netherlands) provides no evidence for a causal role of brain size for IQ test performance.

Health - Life Sciences - 28.09.2015
Reducing our own pain is also reducing empathy for pain in others
Reducing our own pain is also reducing empathy for pain in others
The ability to feel the pain of others is based on neurobiological processes which underlie pain experience in oneself. Using innovative methods, an international research team headed by psychologist Claus Lamm from the University of Vienna could show that a reduction of self-experienced pain leads to a reduction in empathy for pain in others as well.

Life Sciences - Health - 07.05.2015
Surprise from the Deep Ocean
Archaea belong together with Bacteria to the first organisms that emerged on Earth. These microorganisms existed hundreds of millions of years before the more complex cell structures of Eukaryotes developed that gave rise to macroscopic life, i.e. plants and animals. An international team of researchers from Uppsala (Sweden), Bergen (Norway) and Vienna (Austria), has found a novel group of Archaea in deep ocean sediments, who are the closest direct relatives of the eukaryotic lineage.

Life Sciences - Health - 20.04.2015
Large heads, narrow pelvises and difficult childbirth in humans
In humans, the size of the neonatal skull is large relative to the dimensions of the birth canal in the female pelvis. This "obstetric dilemma" is the reason why childbirth is slower and more difficult in humans than in most other primates. Barbara Fischer and Philipp Mitteroecker from the Centre of Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, University of Oslo, and the Department of Theoretical Biology, University Vienna, identified adaptations in the morphology of the human body, which were unknown so far, and which contribute to ameliorate this obstetric dilemma.

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