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Environment - Physics - 10.04.2024
Novel UV Broadband Spectrometer Revolutionises Air Pollutant Analysis
Novel UV Broadband Spectrometer Revolutionises Air Pollutant Analysis
The laser-based technology developed at TU Graz enables the continual real-time analysis of air pollutants and their interaction with other gases and sunlight. Sunlight has a major influence on chemical processes. Its high-energy UV radiation in particular is strongly absorbed by all materials and triggers photochemical reactions of the substances present in the air.

Environment - Health - 04.04.2024
How Plants Heal Wounds
How Plants Heal Wounds
April 4, 2024 Pressure changes and mechanical forces trigger wound healing in plants Plants are very robust and survive harsh environments, owing in part to their remarkably efficient wound-healing capacity. For over a century, scientists aimed to understand it in more detail. A new collaborative study at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA) now shows that the process is quite straightforward, revolving around pressure and forces.

Paleontology - Environment - 21.03.2024
Rays were more diverse 150 million years ago than previously thought
Rays were more diverse 150 million years ago than previously thought
New fossil ray species discovered in Bavarica, Germany: Aellopobatis bavarica from the Late Jurassic In a new study recently published in the journal Papers in Palaeontology , an international team of scientists led by palaeobiologist Julia Türtscher from the University of Vienna has explored the puzzling world of rays that lived 150 million years ago and discovered a previously hidden diversity - including a new ray species.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 19.03.2024
Frequency of heat days systematically underestimated in many studies
Frequency of heat days systematically underestimated in many studies
Many studies on the climate crisis focus on researching temperature extremes on a global scale. Scientists at the University of Vienna have now uncovered an error in an established calculation method, leading to a systematic underestimation in the frequency of heat days. The error is based in the previously unnoticed impact of the seasonal cycle on the extreme threshold due to the incorrect application of so called "moving time windows".

Environment - 18.03.2024
New paths to energy security: demand-oriented solutions
New paths to energy security: demand-oriented solutions
Energy systems that are essential to our daily lives are increasingly threatened by wars, pandemics, climate change and other unexpected events. An international team of researchers has found that demand-side approaches have far greater potential to reduce our vulnerability to energy crises than supply-side measures.

Environment - Life Sciences - 23.02.2024
Global warming increases the diversity of active soil bacteria
Global warming increases the diversity of active soil bacteria
New findings enable more accurate prediction of the carbon cycle Warmer soils harbour a greater diversity of active microbes, according to a new study from researchers at the Centre for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science (CeMESS) at the University of Vienna. The study, published in Science Advances , represents a significant shift in our understanding of how microbial activity in the soil influences the global carbon cycle and possible feedback mechanisms on the climate.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 23.02.2024
Cloud Clustering Causes More Extreme Rain
Cloud Clustering Causes More Extreme Rain
New climate model shows more extreme rainfall in the tropics with increased temperatures Understanding cloud patterns in our changing climate is essential to making accurate predictions about their impact on society and nature. Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (ISTA) and the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology published a new study in the journal Science Advances that uses a high-resolution global climate model to understand how the clustering of clouds and storms impacts rainfall extremes in the tropics.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 22.02.2024
First high-resolution record of fossil corals shows climate change
First high-resolution record of fossil corals shows climate change
Hawaii: Environmental data from shallow-water corals provide a glimpse 500,000 years into the past During the IODP Expedition 389 "Hawaiian Drowned Reefs" off the coast of Hawaii, scientists recovered a total of 426 meters of cores from the seafloor in water depths ranging from 130 to 1240 meters.

Life Sciences - Environment - 21.02.2024
Baleen whales evolved a unique larynx to communicate
Baleen whales evolved a unique larynx to communicate
The new results also make it clear that human noise in the oceans severely restricts the animals The iconic baleen whales, such as the blue, gray and humpback whale, depend on sound for communication in the vast marine environment where they live. However, ever since whale song were first discovered more than 50 years ago, it remained unknown how baleen whales produce their complex vocalizations - until now.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 09.01.2024
Shape matters: How microplastic travels that far
Shape matters: How microplastic travels that far
New study: Microplastic fibers are settling substantially slower than spherical particles in the atmosphere and might even reach stratosphere How far microplastics travel in the atmosphere depends crucially on particle shape, according to a recent study by scientists at the University of Vienna and the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organisation in Göttingen: While spherical particles settle quickly, microplastic fibers might travel as far as the stratosphere.