Life Sciences

Results 101 - 120 of 334.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 27.10.2022
Profiling of sweet-fatty molecules on cell surfaces.
Profiling of sweet-fatty molecules on cell surfaces.
New method enables measurement of glycolipids; now, for example, the relevance in cancer will be investigated So-called glycolipids, or "sweet-fatty" molecules, are a relatively unknown group among the body's diverse lipids. A method developed by an Austrian team led by chemist Evelyn Rampler of the University of Vienna has now provided deeper insights into the functioning of certain glycolipids, which are located, among other things, on the surfaces of stem cells.

Health - Life Sciences - 25.10.2022
Head and neck cancer: Markers to facilitate better treatment in the future
Malignant tumours in the head and neck region are very heterogeneous and therefore difficult to treat. In addition, the lack of prognostic markers is a significant impediment to personalised treatment. A joint study by MedUni Vienna and the Christian Doppler Laboratory for Applied Metabolomics focused on the development and identification of specific markers to improve risk assessment for patients.

Life Sciences - Computer Science - 25.10.2022
Simulated Brain Model Made to See for the First Time
Simulated Brain Model Made to See for the First Time
By Birgit Baustädter Researchers at TU Graz have for the first time reproduced the function of vision on a detailed model of the mouse brain. Until now, brain structures could be modelled, but it was not possible to perform specific functions.

Health - Life Sciences - 13.10.2022
Skin microbiome identified as factor in stem cell transplants
Organ damage occurs in up to 70 percent of patients in the first few months following stem cell transplant. The precise reasons for this potentially life-threatening reaction have long been the subject of scientific research. Researchers led by Georg Stary from the Department of Dermatology at MedUni Vienna and Vienna General Hospital in collaboration with the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases have recently identified bacterial proliferation on the skin as a factor associated with the occurrence of the complication.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.10.2022
Hormone protects against development of fatty liver
A study group at MedUni Vienna has identified a regulatory loop controlled by leptin, by which this adipocyte-derived hormone regulates hepatic lipid metabolism via the autonomic nervous system. The study provides evidence that this adipose tissue-brain-liver axis, previously identified in animal models, also exists in humans and is opening up new approaches for treating metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.10.2022
Human papillomavirus drives the developement of skin cancer
It is now well known that viruses can cause infectious diseases ranging from COVID-19 to AIDS to Ebola. However, medical science also assumes that viruses play a role in about ten percent of cancers. An international research team led by MedUni Vienna and the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology in Vienna has now shown that human papillomavirus 42 (HPV42) drives the development of a particular type of skin cancer.

Health - Life Sciences - 16.09.2022
Alzheimer’s: up to 40% of cases are preventable
Early detection of Alzheimer's disease is critical if patients are to receive timely and appropriate care and potential treatments and preventive measures are to be used to the best possible effect. Scientists have so far identified several important risk factors that may trigger or accelerate dementia.

Life Sciences - 26.08.2022
Neuronal back-up system discovered
Neuronal back-up system discovered
Researchers at MedUni Vienna have discovered that neurons have an emergency back-up system to enable them to remain functional even when their energy supply is disrupted. As in many areas of technology, an emergency back-up serves to compensate for any energy supply failures experienced by neurons. The results of the study have now appeared in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Life Sciences - 23.08.2022
Asian elephants have nasal pronunciation
Asian elephants have nasal pronunciation
Mammalian sounds in general may be more flexible than previously thought Researchers at the University of Vienna used an acoustic camera that can visualize sound pressure to study the sounds made by Asian elephants. The animals utter their low-frequency sounds mostly from the trunk, or simultaneously from the mouth and trunk, and only rarely from the mouth alone.

Life Sciences - Health - 22.08.2022
Caterpillar-like bacteria crawl in our mouths
Caterpillar-like bacteria crawl in our mouths
Evolution of longitudinal division and multicellularity in oral bacteria. To survive in the oral cavity, bacteria have evolved to divide along their longitudinal axis without separating from each other. This is what a research team led by cell biologist Silvia Bulgheresi of the University of Vienna and microbial geneticist Frédéric Veyrier of the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) recently discovered.

Health - Life Sciences - 22.08.2022
First treatment for liver damage in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic disorder that often leads to serious damage to the lungs and liver. Although there are already therapeutic measures available for alleviating pulmonary emphysema caused by the missing enzyme, the precise background to the associated liver damage was hitherto unclear and there was no known treatment option.

Life Sciences - Environment - 19.08.2022
Fish deaths in the Oder: algae toxin detected in Oder water
Fish deaths in the Oder: algae toxin detected in Oder water
Scientists of the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) and the University of Vienna believe that natural causes for the mass development of algae are unlikely. Recent investigations substantiate the suspicion that mass development of a toxic brackish water alga has taken place in the Oder River.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.08.2022
New prognostic marker discovered for multiple sclerosis severity
It is essential to assess the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to choose appropriate therapeutic measures, but this cannot be reliably done using existing methods. A MedUni Vienna study now shows for the first time that the retina can be used as a prognostic marker. Analyses revealed that retinal layer thinning as a result of an MS relapse predicts the severity of future relapses and, hence, the likelihood of disability.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.08.2022
Breast cancer: new drug shrinks brain metastases
Breast cancer: new drug shrinks brain metastases
An Austrian study led by MedUni Vienna showed that active brain metastases in breast cancer patients are partially or even completely regressed by a novel class of drug. This is a chemical conjugate of an antibody and a chemotherapy drug that, according to current findings, opens up a completely new avenue in oncological research and targeted therapy.

Life Sciences - Health - 02.08.2022
Receptor FIBCD1 newly identified in neuro-developmental disorders
A multidisciplinary study led by Vanja Nagy (LBI-RUD/CeMM/Medical University of Vienna) and Josef Penninger (UBC/IMBA) characterized a novel gene, known as FIBCD1, to be likely causative of a new and rare neurodevelopmental disorder. Using data from two young patients with neurological symptoms, the researchers from both groups found evidence of a novel function for the FIBCD1 gene in the brain, and a potentially pivotal role in diseases such as autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer-s.

Health - Life Sciences - 26.07.2022
Potential for improving premature baby care
One in two premature babies receives transfusions of red blood cells (RBC) due to anaemia. There are no generally accepted clinical guidelines for the degree of anaemia necessitating blood transfusions. MedUni Vienna researchers have now conducted a critical review of the currently available literature.

Health - Life Sciences - 19.07.2022
Study confirms accuracy of national virus variant monitoring of wastewater
Since 2020, Austria has played an internationally pioneering role in monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic by sequencing virus particles from wastewater samples. A recent study by CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Medical University of Vienna, the University of Innsbruck, and many other collaboration partners now demonstrates unprecedented detail and accuracy when it comes to analyses of how wastewater reflects virus variant dynamics.

Life Sciences - 15.07.2022
Newly discovered: neuronal cell type for controlling the flow of information in the brain
A scientific team from MedUni Vienna's Center for Brain Research has now identified specific cells that regulate the transmission of information between brain areas. This discovery forms the basis for the development of new treatment options for neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, which are characterised by impaired coordination of information flow in the brain.

Health - Life Sciences - 14.07.2022
Established drug for symptoms of angina pectoris also protects vascular system
A drug used in the clinical treatment of angina symptoms also has an anti-inflammatory effect and reduces atherosclerotic plaques in blood vessels - thereby reducing the risk of heart attack or stroke. The study, led by MedUni Vienna and including access to data from Harvard Medical School, has now been published in the highly regarded journal "PNAS".

Life Sciences - Health - 13.07.2022
TBE: activation mechanism of flaviviruses identified
A collaboration between researchers at the Center for Virology of the Medical University of Vienna and the Pasteur Institute in Paris has provided unexpected insights into the atomic interactions of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in infected cells. In particular, the researchers identified a new molecular switch that is used to control the processes of virus assembly, virus maturation and entry into new cells.