news 2017

Transport - Aug 7
Transport
Joint investigations by researchers from Graz University of Technology and the ÖAMTC show that the risk of serious head injuries increases when an already damaged helmet or a wrong helmet is worn. Additional images for download can be found at the end of the message In Austria, more than 4,100 moped riders are injured in road accidents every year - including many young people.
Paleontology - Aug 4
Paleontology

Threatened with extinction despite perfect adaptation

Physics - Aug 3
Physics

How can you perforate an atomic layer of material and leave the one underneath intact? Scientists at TU Wien (Vienna) developed a technique for processing surfaces on an atomic scale.

Chemistry - Aug 4
Chemistry

Simulations at Graz University of Technology refute earlier theories on long-range charge transfer between organic and inorganic materials.

Physics - Jul 30
Physics

"Core-shell" clusters pave the way for new efficient nanomaterials that make catalysts, magnetic and laser sensors or measuring devices for detecting electromagnetic radiation more efficient.


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Physics - Mathematics - 19.12.2017
Hidden bridge between quantum experiments and graph theory uncovered using Melvin
Hidden bridge between quantum experiments and graph theory uncovered using Melvin
An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. Researchers from the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna found the deep connection between experimental quantum physics and this mathematical theory in the study of Melvin's unusual solutions, which lies beyond human intuition.

Physics - Electroengineering - 19.12.2017
A particle like slow light
A particle like slow light
A remarkable discovery was made at TU Wien recently, when particles known as 'Weyl fermions' were discovered in materials with strong interaction between electrons. Just like light particles, they have no mass but nonetheless they move extremely slowly. There was great excitement back in 2015, when it was first possible to measure these 'Weyl fermions' - outlandish, massless particles that had been predicted almost 90 years earlier by German mathematician, physician and philosopher, Hermann Weyl.

Physics - 18.12.2017
Error-free into the Quantum Computer Age
Error-free into the Quantum Computer Age
A study carried out by an international team of researchers and published in the journal Physical Review X shows that ion-trap technologies available today are suitable for building large-scale quantum computers. The scientists introduce trapped-ion quantum error correction protocols that detect and correct processing errors.

Civil Engineering - 18.12.2017
The Inflatable Bridge
The Inflatable Bridge
A wildlife crossing over the upcoming Koralm railway is being built, using a new construction technique developed by TU Wien. Traditional support structures are replaced by an air cushion. The shell construction methods which are usually used to build bridges and domes generally rely on expensive support structures.

Physics - Life Sciences - 11.12.2017
Clothes make the woman: less empathy towards women showing more skin
Clothes make the woman: less empathy towards women showing more skin
Sexualized representations, especially the emphasis of secondary sexual characteristics, can change the way we perceive an individual. An international team of researchers led by Giorgia Silani from the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Vienna has shown that empathic feelings and brain responses are reduced when we observe the emotions of sexualized women.

History / Archeology - Physics - 29.11.2017
Prehistoric women had stronger arms than today’s elite rowing teams
The first study to compare ancient and living female bones shows the routine manual labour of women during early agricultural eras was more gruelling than the physical demands of rowing in Cambridge University's famously competitive boat clubs. Researchers von der University of Cambridge und der Anthropologe Ron Pinhasi von der Universität Wien say the findings suggest a "hidden history" of women's work stretching across millennia.

Computer Science - 29.11.2017
Logic can make our Browsers Safe
Logic can make our Browsers Safe
The Computer Scientist Matteo Maffei (TU Wien) is awarded an ERC Consolidator Grant for the project "Browsec: Foundations and Tools for Client-Side Web Security" . He is working on a plugin that will make browsers safe - and is logically impossible to fool. We are hardly aware of the dangers we face when we are browsing the web.

Physics - 28.11.2017
Quantum systems correct themselves
Quantum systems correct themselves
Quantum devices allow us to accomplish computing and sensing tasks that go beyond the capabilities of their classical counterparts. However, protecting quantum information from being corrupted by errors is difficult. An international team of researchers from Innsbruck, Harvard, Copenhagen and Waterloo put forward a new method to protect quantum information stored in trapped ions.

Health - Life Sciences - 16.11.2017
Veni Vidi Vici
Multidrug resistance of microbes poses a serious global threat to human health. Such resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae significantly reduce therapeutic options for the treatment of Klebsiella-induced, potentially fatal pneumonia or sepsis.

Life Sciences - 08.11.2017
The key to a nut
The key to a nut
The Goffin's cockatoo is not a specialised tool user in the wild but has shown the capacity to invent and use different types of tools in captivity. Now cognitive biologists from the University of Vienna and the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna tested these parrots in a tool use task, requiring the birds to move objects in relation to a surface.

Physics - 06.11.2017
Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer
Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories.

Physics - 27.10.2017
Nanomagnets Levitate Thanks to Quantum Physics
Nanomagnets Levitate Thanks to Quantum Physics
Quantum physicists in Oriol Romero-Isart's research group in Innsbruck show in two current publications that, despite Earnshaw's theorem, nanomagnets can be stably levitated in an external static magnetic field owing to quantum mechanical principles. The quantum angular momentum of electrons, which also causes magnetism, is accountable for this mechanism.

Physics - Chemistry - 24.10.2017
Jumping Nanoparticles
Jumping Nanoparticles
Transitions occurring in nanoscale systems, such as a chemical reaction or the folding of a protein, are strongly affected by friction and thermal noise. Almost 80 years ago, the Dutch physicist Hendrik Kramers predicted that such transitions occur most frequently at intermediate friction, an effect known as Kramers turnover.

Economics / Business - Mechanical Engineering - 24.10.2017
Testing the test beds: new Christian Doppler lab at TU Graz
Testing the test beds: new Christian Doppler lab at TU Graz
Starting shot for Christian Doppler Laboratory for Model-Based Control of Complex Test Bed Systems. From vehicles to solar energy systems, practically all systems are becoming more and more complex, are being quickly further developed, and have to be comprehensively tested before use. This calls for suitable high-performance and flexible test beds; but developing them is extremely challenging.

Astronomy / Space Science - Continuing Education - 23.10.2017
Formation of Magma Oceans on exoplanet
Formation of Magma Oceans on exoplanet
Induction heating can completely change the energy budget of an exoplanet and even melt its interior. In a study published by Nature Astronomy an international team led by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences with participation of the University of Vienna explains how magma oceans can form under the surface of exoplanets as a result of induction heating.

Health - Life Sciences - 23.10.2017
Boost for lipid research: Graz researchers facilitate lipid data analysis
Boost for lipid research: Graz researchers facilitate lipid data analysis
Illnesses such as cancer and multiple sclerosis may also be associated with lipids. Disorders are difficult to assess due to the diversity of lipids. Graz scientists present a new tool for the analysis of lipids. No lipids, no life. In all organisms, lipids form cell walls, store energy and release it when necessary, and play an important role in cell signalling.

Astronomy / Space Science - Life Sciences - 17.10.2017
Microbes leave
Microbes leave "fingerprints" on Martian rocks
Scientists around Tetyana Milojevic from the Faculty of Chemistry at the University of Vienna are in search of unique biosignatures, which are left on synthetic extraterrestrial minerals by microbial activity. The biochemist and astrobiologist investigates these signatures at her own miniaturized "Mars farm" where she can observe interactions between the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula and Mars-like rocks.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.10.2017
Germ-free hatching eggs: An alternative to formaldehyde application
Germ-free hatching eggs: An alternative to formaldehyde application
Hatching eggs in large-scale hatcheries are currently treated with formaldehyde to eliminate germs. Researchers from TU Graz, acib and Roombiotic have now developed a natural alternative. There was a Europe-wide outcry in the summer of 2017 as it emerged that hatching eggs were being treated with the insecticide fipronil, which is harmful to health.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.10.2017
Risk of Caesarean section is heritable
Risk of Caesarean section is heritable
Women born by Caesarean section due to a fetopelvic disproportion (FDP) are more than twice as likely to develop FDP when giving birth than women born naturally. This is the conclusion of a study by a team of evolutionary biologists at the University of Vienna headed by Philipp Mitteroecker. Using a mathematical model, the team was able to explain the paradoxical phenomenon that natural selection did not lead to the reduction in the rates of obstructed labour.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 12.10.2017
Enzymes at work: breaking down stubborn cellulose
Enzymes at work: breaking down stubborn cellulose
TU Graz researchers observe enzymes breaking down cellulose to aid the production of biofuels. The results are now published. Biofuels obtained from biomass are becoming increasingly important. Apart from biomethane, however, they cannot be produced efficiently, cheaply and sustainably since the current technological complexity and costs are still too high.
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